This study measures the efficiencies incorporating waste generation using Japanese prefecture level data. We apply and compare several models using directional distance functions. There are wide variations in the efficiency scores between the two orientations, "input, desirable and undesirable output orientation" and "undesirable output orientation". However, the difference in abatement factor does not result in wide variations in the efficiency scores. Our results show that there are wide differences in the efficiency scores among prefectures.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Economics and Econometrics
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law