VIP attenuation of the severity of experimental pancreatitis is due to VPAC1 receptor-mediated inhibition of cytokine production

Mizuho Kojima, Tetsuhide Ito, Takamasa Oono, Terumasa Hisano, Hisato Igarashi, Yoshiyuki Arita, Ken Kawabe, David H. Coy, Robert T. Jensen, Hajime Nawata

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40 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: VIP receptor has been clarified to exist on immune cells, indicating its possible involvement in immunity and inflammatory response. Therefore, we investigated the effects of VIP and selective agonists for 2 subtypes of VIP receptor (VPAC1-R and VPAC2-R agonist) on acute pancreatitis. Methods: Acute pancreatitis was induced in mice by 4 intraperitoneal injections of cerulein and an injection of LPS. VIP, VPAC 1-R agonist, VPAC2-R agonist, or secretin (5 nmol/body) was administered 30 minutes before and after the administration of LPS. Serum amylase and cytokine levels were determined, and histologic changes were evaluated. In vitro, IL-6 and TNF-α production by monocytes from the spleen was determined under the stimulation of LPS with VIP, VPAC1-R agonist, or VPAC2-R agonist, and the expression of VPAC1-R and VPAC2-R mRNA in monocytes was examined. Results: VPAC 1-R agonist significantly decreased serum amylase, IL-6, and TNF-α, whereas VPAC2-R agonist markedly increased serum amylase. Histologically, VIP and VPAC1-R agonist attenuated the severity of pancreatitis, although VPAC2-R agonist or secretin showed no significant effect. In vitro, VPAC1-R and VPAC2-R mRNA were obviously expressed in monocytes. Under the stimulation with LPS, VIP presented a biphasic pattern that once decreased IL-6 production from monocytes and then enhanced at high concentration. VPAC1-R agonist reduced IL-6 levels, whereas VPAC2-R agonist increased IL-6 dose-dependently. VPAC1-R agonist reduced TNF-α levels in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: VIP attenuated the experimental acute pancreatitis enzymatically and morphologically by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production from monocytes mainly through the VPAC1-R.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)62-70
Number of pages9
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Hepatology
  • Endocrinology


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