Vibration fatigue reliability of BGA-IC package with Pb-free solder and Pb-Sn solder

Youngbae Kim, Hiroshi Noguchi, Masazumi Amagai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, a new method is proposed for evaluating the high-cycle fatigue strength of BGA (Ball Grid Array) packages with Pb-free solder and Pb-Sn solder due to vibration. An attached weight induced mixed mode stress in the solder ball of a package was used. To consider the effect of the mixed mode stress that occurred in a solder ball and the frequency to fatigue strength of the solder ball, a test was carried out with the three kinds of weights (σnn = 4, 5, and 6) at various frequencies (10-27 Hz). To clarify the effect of frequency, a nonlinear analysis with a viscoplastic model was carried out within the range of 0.001-3450 Hz. From the continuous observation of the cross-section of the package and finite element method (FEM) analysis results, it was revealed that the maximum principal stress is the driving force to package failure. Although an intermetallic compound in both packages and a Pb-rich region in a Pb-Sn solder based package were confirmed by EDX microprobe analysis, they do not contribute to the initiation of a crack in a solder ball. The fatigue strength of the Pb-free solder and Pb solder was evaluated on the basis of the maximum principal stress calculated by FEM and the experimental results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)459-466
Number of pages8
JournalMicroelectronics Reliability
Issue number2-4
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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