Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) remains a diagnostic challenge due to difficulties in detecting endocardial lesions by echocardiography. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT) has shown good diagnostic performance in prosthetic valve IE. This study aimed to assess its additional diagnostic value in ACHD-associated IE and to characterize its advantages. Methods and Results: Overall, 22 patients with ACHD and clinical suspicion of IE were retrospectively studied. 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed in addition to conventional assessment based on the modified Duke criteria. The final IE diagnosis was determined by an expert team during a 3-month clinical course, resulting in 18 patients diagnosed with IE. Seven patients (39%) were diagnosed with definite IE only by initial echocardiography. An 18F-FDG PET/CT assessment revealed endocardial involvement in the other 9 patients, resulting in the diagnosis of definite IE in 16 in total (88%). Right-sided endocardial lesions were more common (n=12, 67%) but rarely identified by echocardiography, whereas 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed right-sided lesions in 9 patients. A negative 18F-FDG PET/CT (n=7, 39%) assessment was associated with a native valve IE (71% vs. 0%). In 4 patients who were identified with not-IE, neither echocardiography nor 18F-FDG PET/CT detected any suspicious cardiac involvement. Conclusions: In the diagnosis of ACHD-associated IE, characterized by right-sided IE, 18F-FDG PET/CT assessment should be useful.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine