Transformation of Hydrophilic Drug into Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquids for Transdermal Drug Delivery

Rahman Md Moshikur, Islam Md Shimul, Shihab Uddin, Rie Wakabayashi, Muhammad Moniruzzaman, Masahiro Goto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


The transdermal delivery of hydrophilic drugs remains challenging owing to their poor ability to permeate the skin; formulation with oil media is difficult without adding chemical permeation enhancers or co-solvents. Herein, we synthesized 12 oil-miscible ionic liquid (IL) drugs comprising lidocaine-, imipramine-, and levamisole (Lev)-hydrochloride with fatty acid permeation enhancers, i.e., laurate, oleate, linoleate, and stearate as counterions. A set of in vitro and in vivo studies was performed to investigate the potency and deliverability of the transdermal drug formulations. All of the synthesized compounds were freely miscible with pharmaceutically acceptable solvents/agents (i.e., ethanol, N-methyl pyrrolidone, Tween 20, and isopropyl myristate (IPM)). In vitro permeation studies revealed that the oleate-based Lev formulation had 2.6-fold higher skin permeation capability than the Lev salts and also superior ability compared with the laurate-, linoleate-, and stearate-containing samples. Upon in vivo transdermal administration to mice, the peak plasma concentration, elimination half-life, and area under the plasma concentration curve values of Lev-IL were 4.6-, 2.9-, and 5.4-fold higher, respectively, than those of the Lev salt. Furthermore, in vitro skin irritation and in vivo histological studies have demonstrated that Lev-IL has excellent biocompatibility compared with a conventional ionic liquid-based carrier. The results indicate that oil-miscible IL-based drugs provide a simple and scalable strategy for the design of effective transdermal drug delivery systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55332-55341
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number50
Publication statusPublished - Dec 21 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science


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