Transformation of 3DP gypsum model to HA by treating in ammonium phosphate solution

Rungnapa Lowmunkong, Taiji Sohmura, Junzo Takahashi, Yumiko Suzuki, Shigeki Matsuya, Kunio Ishikawa

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31 Citations (Scopus)


Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is a CAD/CAM built-up using ink-jet printing technique. Commercially available 3DP system can form only gypsum model and not for bioceramics. On the other hand, transformation of hardened gypsum into hydroxyapatite (HA) by treatment in ammonium phosphate solution was found lately. In the present study, transformation of the 3DP gypsum block to HA was attempted. However, the fabricated 3DP block was soluble in water. To insolubilize, it was heated at 300°C for 10 min, and then, gypsum was transformed to calcium sulfate hemihydrate, CaSO4·0.5H 2O. The 3D block was immersed in 1M (NH4) 3PO4·3H2O solution at 80°C for 1-24 h, and the transformation into HA within 4 h was ascertained. A heat-treated plaster of Paris (POP) block was also investigated for comparison. The unheated POP block consisting of gypsum dihydrate took 24 h to complete the transformation, while the heat-treated POP consisting calcium sulfate hemihydrate promoted the transformation into HA; but the transformed thickness in the block was less than the 3DP block. This is probably due to higher solubility of the hemihydrate than gypsum dihydrate. Accelerated transformation of the 3DP block was also caused by its porous structure, which enabled an easy penetration of the phosphate solution. With the present method, it is possible to transform the fabricated gypsum by 3D printing that is adaptive to the osseous defect into HA prostheses or scaffold.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)386-393
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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