Schizophrenia was initially defined as “dementia praecox” by E. Kraepelin, which implies progressive deterioration. However, recent studies have revealed that early effective intervention may lead to social and functional recovery in schizophrenia. In this review, we provide an overview of current concepts in schizophrenia and pathophysiological hypotheses. In addition, we present recent findings from clinical and basic research on schizophrenia. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have consistently revealed specific biological differences in the structure and function of the brain in those with schizophrenia. From a basic research perspective, to determine the essential pathophysiology underlying schizophrenia, it is crucial that findings from all lines of inquiry—induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural cells from patients, murine models expressing genetic mutations identified in patients, and patient clinical data—be integrated to contextualize the analysis results. However, the findings remain insufficient to serve as a diagnostic tool or a biomarker for predicting schizophrenia-related outcomes. Collaborations to conduct clinical research based on the patients' and their families' values are just beginning, and further development is expected.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology
- Psychiatry and Mental health