Rationale:Kimura disease (KD) is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by subcutaneous granuloma in the head and neck region, as well as increased eosinophil counts and high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Kimura disease is suspected to be an IgE-mediated disease, associated with an allergic response, in which antigen-specific B cells are stimulated to undergo specific IgE class switching with disease-specific CD4+ T (Th) cells help. Thus, exploration of the Th cells in affected tissues with KD is a highly promising field of the investigation. However, there have been no reports with direct evidence to implicate Th cells in affected lesions with KD. Here we quantitatively demonstrate that CD4+ GATA3+ T cells and interleukin (IL)-4+ IgE+ c-kit+ mast cells prominently infiltrate in affected lesion with KD.Patient concerns:A 56-year-old Japanese man who exhibited painless swelling in the left parotid region.Diagnoses:Diagnosis of KD was made based on characteristic histopathologic findings, in conjunction with peripheral eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE levels.Interventions:The patient underwent corticosteroid therapy and had been followed for 2 years.Outcomes:We report a rare case of KD of the parotid region in a 56-year-old man, followed by corticosteroid therapy for 2 years. The mass decreased in size and skin itchiness decreased after therapy. He was discharged without any complications. Furthermore, we quantitatively demonstrate the dominance of CD4+ GATA3+ T cells in affected tissues of KD and detect IL-4+ IgE+ c-kit+ mast cells in lesions by multicolor staining approaches.Lessons:The findings from this case suggest that peripheral blood eosinophilia might serve as a marker of recurrent disease, long-term follow-up is necessary due to the possibility of recurrent. Interactions among expanded IgE+ B cells, CD4+ GATA3+ T cells, eosinophils, and activated mast cells might play a critical role in the pathogenesis of KD.
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