Time-transient effects of silver and copper in the porous titanium dioxide layer on antibacterial properties

Masaya Shimabukuro, Akari Hiji, Tomoyo Manaka, Kosuke Nozaki, Peng Chen, Maki Ashida, Yusuke Tsutsumi, Akiko Nagai, Takao Hanawa

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13 Citations (Scopus)


Recently, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) have been incorporated into a titanium (Ti) surface to realize their antibacterial property. This study investigated both the durability of the antibacterial effect and the surface change of the Ag- and Cu-incorporated porous titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer. Ag- and Cu-incorporated TiO2 layers were formed by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment using the electrolyte with Ag and Cu ions. Ag- and Cu-incorporated specimens were incubated in saline during a period of 0–28 days. The changes in both the concentrations and chemical states of the Ag and Cu were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The durability of the antibacterial effects against Escherichia coli (E. coli) were evaluated by the international organization for standardization (ISO) method. As a result, the Ag- and Cu-incorporated porous TiO2 layers were formed on a Ti surface by MAO. The chemical state of Ag changed from Ag2O to metallic Ag, whilst that of Cu did not change by incubation in saline for up to 28 days. Cu existed as a stable Cu2O compound in the TiO2 layer during the 28 days of incubation in saline. The concentrations of Ag and Cu were dramatically decreased by incubation for up to 7 days, and remained a slight amount until 28 days. The antibacterial effect of Ag-incorporated specimens diminished, and that of Cu was maintained even after incubation in saline. Our study suggests the importance of the time-transient effects of Ag and Cu on develop their antibacterial effects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number44
JournalJournal of Functional Biomaterials
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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