Time orientation and identity formation: Long-term longitudinal dynamics in emerging adulthood

Toshiaki Shirai, Tomoyasu Nakamura, Kumiko Katsuma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


This study explores how time orientation causes identity formation in emerging adulthood. We assume identity formation can be led by a balanced time orientation, which is defined as a time orientation with which individuals not only pursue a future goal but also combine it with living fully in the present. We used a long-term longitudinal design. The participants (N=181), who were college students at the beginning of this investigation, were followed from age 20-31 years. They were asked to answer a questionnaire that was composed of the Time Orientation Questionnaire (TOQ) and the Identity Status Scale (ISS). A bivariate latent growth curve model using the data at age 24, 27, and 30 years revealed that, as predicted, a balanced time orientation contributed to identity development. We mainly discuss the results of the analyses in terms of the role of a balanced time orientation in revising identity as they accommodate a wider range of life experiences during the transition to adulthood.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)274-284
Number of pages11
JournalJapanese Psychological Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychology(all)


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