Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is increased in myocardium after myocardial infarction (MI), which may play a causal role in cardiac remodelling. However, there is scant direct and longitudinal evidence that systemic oxidative stress is enhanced accompanying an increase of ROS in myocardium. The authors conducted a comprehensive investigation of ROS markers by simultaneously sampling urine, blood and myocardium and in vivo ESR for the heart at different stages of post-MI cardiac remodelling in mouse with permanent occlusion of left coronary artery. Systemic oxidative markers increased at early days after MI and were normalized later. In contrast, TBARS and 4-hexanoyl-Lys staining were increased in non-infarct myocardium at day 28. The enhancement of ESR signal decay of methoxycarbonyl-PROXYL measured at the chest was associated with the progression of left ventricle dilatation and dysfunction. This study provided the direct evidence that redox alteration and production of ROS occurred in myocardium during the progression of cardiac remodelling and failure; however, ROS marker levels in blood and urine do not reflect the production of ROS from failing myocardium.
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