Background: The treatment outcomes of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have been poorly documented. Patients and methods: We investigated 50 patients with synchronous and metachronous ESCC and HNSCC. We focused on the treatment results of 20 patients with synchronous ESCC and HNSCC who received simultaneous chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Results: There were 34 patients (68.0 %) with stage 0-I ESCC and 40 patients (80.0 %) with stage II-IV HNSCC. A total of 13 (26.0 %) patients underwent endoscopic mucosal resection and 28 (56.0 %) underwent CRT for ESCC, and 35 (70.0 %) of the patients with HNSCC were treated with CRT. The 5-year overall survival rates of the 50 patients with synchronous and metachronous ESCC and HNSCC was 57.8 %. For the 20 patients with synchronous ESCC and HNSCC who received simultaneous CRT, the CRT was completed in 19 (95.0 %) patients. Although grade 3-4 adverse events were observed in five (25.0 %) patients, there were no therapy-related deaths. Complete responses (CRs) of both ESCC and HNSCC were observed in ten (50.0 %) patients. The 5-year overall survival rate of the 20 patients was 60.0 %. CRs of both ESCC and HNSCC were obtained in seven (58.3 %) patients by using a cisplatin/5-FU regimen (n = 12), and in the other three (37.5 %) patients by a platinum-based monotherapy regimen (n = 8). Conclusion: The surveillance of double cancer and the use of radical treatment contributed to the favorable outcome of the patients with ESCC and HNSCC. The optimal chemotherapy regimen for simultaneous CRT remains to be determined.
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