The non–storm time corrugated upper thermosphere: What is beyond MSIS?

Huixin Liu, Jeff Thayer, Yongliang Zhang, Woo Kyoung Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Observations in the recent decade have revealed many thermospheric density corrugations/perturbations under nonstorm conditions (Kp < 2). They are generally not captured by empirical models like Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter (MSIS) but are operationally important for long-term orbital evolution of Low Earth Orbiting satellites and theoretically for coupling processes in the atmosphere-ionosphere system. We review these density corrugations by classifying them into three types which are driven respectively by the lower atmosphere, ionosphere, and solar wind/magnetosphere. Model capabilities in capturing these features are discussed. A summary table of these corrugations is included to provide a quick guide on their magnitudes, occurring latitude, local time, and season.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)746-760
Number of pages15
JournalSpace Weather
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science


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