Thl and Thl-inducing cytokines and T cell responses were investigated in human salmonellosis. Serum IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-18 levels were increased significantly in patients with salmonellosis. The increase in serum IL-15 and IL-18 levels was more significant and prolonged in patients with the systemic form of salmonellosis than in those with the gastroenteric form. The serum IFN-γ level was correlated significantly with IL-12 and IL18 levels, and the IL-15 level was correlated significantly with IL-18. Upon stimulation with Salmonella in vitro, mononuclear cells from salmonellosis patients produced significantly higher amounts of IFN-γ and IL-12 compared with those from healthy controls. Anti-IL-12 moAb or anti-IL18 MoAb significantly inhibited Salmonella-induced IFN-γ production in vitro. γδ T cells expressed significantly higher levels of IFN-γmRNA in salmonellosis patients than in healthy controls. The results suggest that Th1-inducing cytokines appear to be involved in the in vivo response against Salmonella infection, promoting IFN-γ production by αβ and γδ T cells which plays a protective role against Salmonella.
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