The development of small hydropower is one of the realistic and preferable utilizations of renewable energy, but the extra-low head hydropower less than 2 m is almost undeveloped yet for some reasons. The authors have developed several types of Darrieus-type hydro-turbine system, and among them, the Darrieus-turbine with a wear and a nozzle installed upstream of turbine is so far in success to obtain more output power, i.e. more shaft torque, by gathering all water into the turbine. However, there can several cases exist, in which installing the wear covering all the flow channel width is unrealistic. Then, in the present study, the hydraulic performances of Darrieus-type hydro-turbine with the inlet nozzle is investigated, putting alone in a small open channel without upstream wear. In the experiment, the five-bladed Darrieus-type runner with the pitch-circle diameter of 300 mm and the blade span of 300 mm is vertically installed in the open channel with the width of 1,200 mm. The effectiveness of the shape of the inlet nozzle is also examined using two types of two-dimensional symmetric nozzle, the straight line nozzle (SL nozzle) with the converging angle of 45 degrees and the half diameter curved nozzle (HD nozzle) whose radius is a half diameter of runner pitch circle. Inlet and outlet nozzle widths are in common for the both nozzles, which are 540 mm and 240 mm respectively. All the experiments are carried out under the conditions with constant flow rate and downstream water level, and performances are evaluated by measured output torque and the measured head difference between the water levels upstream and downstream of the turbine. As a result, it is found that the output power is remarkably increased by installing the inlet nozzle, and the turbine with SL nozzle produces larger power than that with HD nozzle. However, the peak efficiency is deteriorated in both cases. The speed ratio defined by the rotor speed divided by the downstream water velocity at the peak efficiency is larger in both cases with the inlet nozzle, partly due to the increase of inflow velocity into the turbine. In order to understand the cause of the differences of power, i.e. torque characteristics of the turbine with SL and HD nozzles, twodimensional CFD simulation is carried out. It is found that the instantaneous torque variation is important for the overall turbine performances, indicating the possibility of further performance improvement through the optimization of nozzle geometry.
|IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
|Published - 2014
|27th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, IAHR 2014 - Montreal, Canada
Duration: Sept 22 2014 → Sept 26 2014
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Science(all)
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)