Temporal variations of nitrogen wet deposition across Japan from 1989 to 2008

Y. Morino, T. Ohara, J. Kurokawa, M. Kuribayashi, I. Uno, H. Hara

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To evaluate temporal variations in nitrogen wet deposition across Japan during 1989-2008, we analyzed results of a chemical transport model (the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality) and observational data. The model successfully reproduced the general patterns of spatial and temporal variations of observed NO3- wet deposition rates. Wet deposition rates of NO3- across Japan increased during 1989-2008, with rates of increase of 2-5%/yr. Sensitivity simulations indicated that the increase of NO3- wet deposition rates was mostly (61%-94%) explained by the increased emissions of atmospheric pollutants in China. Contributions of China's emissions increased from 29%-35% during 1989-1993 to 43%-61% during 2004-2008, suggesting that transboundary pollution had a large impact on NO3- wet deposition in Japan. The contribution of observed NO3- to total nitrogen wet deposition (i.e., NO3- + NH4+) increased in southwestern Japan, and currently, NO3- and NH 4+ make similar contributions to nitrogen wet deposition across Japan. Interannual variation of NO3- wet deposition was further evaluated using a meteorological index, area-weighted surface pressure anomaly (ASPA). When ASPA was negative, air masses from the Asian continent were more directly transported to Japan, and NO3 - concentrations across Japan became high. Thus, anomalies of NO 3- concentrations were negatively correlated with ASPA. Anomalies of NO3- wet deposition rates, however, showed a weak positive correlation with ASPA, reflecting a positive correlation between anomalies in precipitation rates and ASPA. This result strongly suggests that precipitation patterns have a large impact on the interannual variation of NO3- wet deposition across Japan.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberD06307
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Forestry
  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Palaeontology


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