Tele-assessment of bandwidth limitation for remote robotics surgery

Yuma Ebihara, Eiji Oki, Satoshi Hirano, Hironobu Takano, Mitsuhiko Ota, Hajime Morohashi, Kenichi Hakamada, Shigeo Urushidani, Masaki Mori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: We investigated the communication bandwidth (CB) limitation for remote robotics surgery (RRS) using hinotori™ (Medicaroid, Kobe, Japan). Methods: The operating rooms of the Hokkaido University Hospital and Kyushu University Hospital were connected using the Science Information NETwork (SINET). The minimum required CB for the RRS was verified by decreasing the CB from 500 to 100 Mbps. Ten surgeons were tested on a task (intracorporeal suturing) at different levels of video compression (VC) (VC1: 120 Mbps, VC2: 40 Mbps, VC3: 20 Mbps) with the minimum required CB, and assessed based on the task completion time, Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills (GEARS), and System and Piper Fatigue Scale-12 (PFS-12). Results: Packet loss was observed at 3–7% and image degradation was observed at 145 Mbps CB. The task performance with VC1 was significantly worse than that with VC2 and VC3 according to the task completion time (VC1 vs VC2, P = 0.032; VC1 vs. VC3, P = 0.032), GEARS (VC1 vs VC2; P = 0.029, VC1 vs VC3; P = 0.031), and PFS-12 (VC1 vs. VC2; P = 0.032, VC1 vs. VC3; P = 0.032) with 145 Mbps. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence that RRS using hinotori™ requires a CB ≥ 150 Mbps. We also found that when there is insufficient CB, RRS can be continued by compressing the image.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1653-1659
Number of pages7
JournalSurgery today
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery


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