Surface-Carboxylated Nanocellulose-Based Bioadaptive Scaffolds for Cell Culture

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Abstract: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical to cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation; therefore, development of bioadaptive ECM-mimetic cell culture scaffolds is an active area of research in tissue engineering. Collagen (rigid nanofiber morphology) and hyaluronan (carboxy groups displayed in a regular manner) are typical ECM components found in vivo. In this work, we used wood-derived crystalline cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) to provide bioadaptive microenvironments for cell culture. Catalytic oxidation of wood CNFs using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) afforded crystalline nanofibrous scaffolds with various carboxy contents, ranging from 0.31 to 1.60 mmol g–1, of the TEMPO-oxidized CNFs (TOCNFs). Mouse fibroblast cells were subjected to the hydrophilic TOCNF-coated substrates, which were transparent and exhibited a native cellulose I crystalline structure; good cell proliferation was observed for the TOCNFs with carboxy content of 0.8–1.0 mmol g–1, although intact CNF was bioinert and an excess of carboxylates negatively impacted cell growth. Neither mercerized TOCNFs with a cellulose II structure nor carboxymethylated CNFs with irregular surface carboxy groups contributed to cell proliferation. Therefore, the rigid nanofiber morphology of xeno-free, crystalline TOCNFs with regular alignment of surface carboxy groups would hold the key to providing bioadaptive, ECM-mimetic cellular microenvironments. Graphic Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2869-2883
Number of pages15
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Polymers and Plastics


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