Suppression of Cu6Sn5 in TiO2 reinforced solder joints after multiple reflow cycles

M. A.A. Mohd Salleh, S. D. McDonald, C. M. Gourlay, H. Yasuda, K. Nogita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Citations (Scopus)


In the current generation of 3D electronic packaging, multiple reflows are often required during soldering. In addition, electronic packages may be subjected to additional solder rework or other heating processes. This paper investigates the effects of multiple reflow cycles on TiO2 reinforced Sn-0.7Cu solder fabricated by a powder metallurgy microwave sintering technique. Compared to TiO2-free equivalents, a relative suppression of the Cu6Sn5 phase, both as primary crystals and as an interfacial layer was observed. The likely mechanism relates to the TiO2 nanoparticles promoting nucleation and decreasing the amount of time that liquid is in contact with the interfacial layer. The TiO2 particles appear to stabilise the interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer and result in a more planar morphology. The suppression of Cu6Sn5 results in TiO2 reinforced solder joints having a higher shear strength after multiple reflow cycles compared to Sn-0.7Cu solder joints.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)418-428
Number of pages11
JournalMaterials and Design
Publication statusPublished - Oct 15 2016
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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