Studies on electrochemical sodium storage into hard carbons with binder-free monolithic electrodes

George Hasegawa, Kazuyoshi Kanamori, Naokatsu Kannari, Jun Ichi Ozaki, Kazuki Nakanishi, Takeshi Abe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Citations (Scopus)


Hard carbons emerge as one of the most promising candidate for an anode of Na-ion batteries. This research focuses on the carbon monolith derived from resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gels as a model hard carbon electrode. A series of binder-free monolithic carbon electrodes heat-treated at varied temperatures allow the comparative investigation of the correlation between carbon nanotexture and electrochemical Na+-ion storage. The increase in carbonization temperature exerts a favorable influence on electrode performance, especially in the range between 1600°C and 2500°C. The comparison between Li+- and Na+-storage behaviors in the carbon electrodes discloses that the Na+-trapping in nanovoids is negligible when the carbonization temperature is higher than 1600°C. On the other hand, the high-temperature sintering at 2500-3000°C enlarges the resistance for Na+-insertion into interlayer spacing as well as Na+-filling into nanovoids. In addition, the study on the effect of pore size clearly demonstrates that not the BET surface area but the surface area related to meso- and macropores is a predominant factor for the initial irreversible capacity. The outcomes of this work are expected to become a benchmark for other hard carbon electrodes prepared from various precursors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-48
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Publication statusPublished - Jun 30 2016
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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