Aerosols and clouds play important roles in the Arctic climate. Conversely, aerosol emissions and cloud formation are affected by changes in the Arctic climate. This paper reviews studies of aerosols and clouds performed during the Arctic Challenge for Sustainability (ArCS) project carried out by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) in Japan and collaborating institutions. The ArCS project included intensive studies of black carbon aerosols (BC). We installed Continuous Soot Monitoring System (COSMOS) instruments to measure atmospheric BC at four locations in the Arctic, establishing the Arctic BC COSMOS Measurement Network (ABCM-net). We also measured BC concentrations in snowpack in extensive areas of the Arctic and showed that previous studies have greatly overestimated BC in snowpack. We developed and improved new aerosol models that achieved better agreements with measurements of BC in the Arctic atmosphere, snowpack, and falling snow. We made new estimates of radiative forcing of BC in the Arctic atmosphere and snow/ice surfaces that lower their albedo. In addition to these researches on BC, we made accurate measurements of ice nucleating particles (INPs) at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, showing that their concentrations increased in summer as a result of dust particle emissions from glacial outwash sediments. This high ice nucleating ability was likely due to the presence of organic substances mixed with the dust particles. We also made continuous cloud radar measurements and the first continuous in-situ measurements of cloud microphysical properties in the Arctic at Ny-Ålesund. Results from these cloud measurements and their relationship with aerosols are described.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Aquatic Science
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)