Structural basis of protein asn-glycosylation by oligosaccharyltransferases

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Glycosylation of asparagine residues is a ubiquitous protein modification. This N-glycosylation is essential in Eukaryotes, but principally nonessential in Prokaryotes (Archaea and Eubacteria), although it facilitates their survival and pathogenicity. In many reviews, Archaea have received far less attention than Eubacteria, but this review will cover the N-glycosylation in the three domains of life. The oligosaccharide chain is preassembled on a lipid-phospho carrier to form a donor substrate, lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO). The en bloc transfer of an oligosaccharide from LLO to selected Asn residues in the Asn-X-Ser/Thr (X≠Pro) sequons in a polypeptide chain is catalyzed by a membrane-bound enzyme, oligosaccharyltransferase (OST). Over the last 10 years, the three-dimensional structures of the catalytic subunits of the Stt3/AglB/PglB proteins, with an acceptor peptide and a donor LLO, have been determined by X-ray crystallography, and recently the complex structures with other subunits have been determined by cryo-electron microscopy. Structural comparisons within the same species and across the different domains of life yielded a unified view of the structures and functions of OSTs. A catalytic structure in the TM region accounts for the amide bond twisting, which increases the reactivity of the side-chain nitrogen atom of the acceptor Asn residue in the sequon. The Ser/Thr-binding pocket in the C-terminal domain explains the requirement for hydroxy amino acid residues in the sequon. As expected, the two functional structures are formed by the involvement of short amino acid motifs conserved across the three domains of life.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
PublisherSpringer New York LLC
Number of pages29
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


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