Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (previously named Xanthomonas maltophilia) is an aerobic, nonfermentive, Gram-negative bacillus that is widespread in the environment. It is considered to be an organism with a limited pathogenic potential, which is rarely capable of causing diseases in humans other than in those who are in an immunocompromised state. In this study, we outline the case of a patient with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia after living donor liver transplantation, which showed the clinical signs of severe sepsis and was resistant to almost all antibiotics. However, we successfully treated the patient with the antibiotics trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) and minocycline hydrochloride (MINO), and performed endotoxin-absorbing therapy using polymyxin B (PMX) to remove the endotoxin from Gramnegative bacillus as well as continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) to remove inflammatory cytokines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia after living donor liver transplantation.
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