Stem cell transplantation for pediatric patients with adrenoleukodystrophy: A nationwide retrospective analysis in Japan

Koji Kato, Hiromasa Yabe, Nobuyuki Shimozawa, Souichi Adachi, Mineo Kurokawa, Yoshiko Hashii, Atsushi Sato, Nao Yoshida, Makiko Kaga, Osamu Onodera, Shunichi Kato, Yoshiko Atsuta, Tomohiro Morio

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked recessive disorder and 30–40% of patients develop progressive cerebral neurodegeneration. For symptomatic ALD patients, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is considered the standard treatment modality to stabilize or prevent the progression of neurological symptoms. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the transplant outcomes of 99 pediatric patients with cerebral ALD in Japan. The conditioning regimens included Regimen A: fludarabine/melphalan/low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) with brain sparing (n = 39), Regimen B; busulfan/cyclophosphamide ± others (n = 23), Regimen C: melphalan/total lymphoid irradiation/thoracoabdominal irradiation ± anti-T lymphocyte globulin ± fludarabine (n = 27), and Regimen D: others (n = 10). Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) of all patients were 90.0% and 72.9%, respectively. The 5-year OS was 100.0% for Regimen A, 91.1% for Regimen B, 84.4% for Regimen C, and 67.5% for Regimen D (p = 0.028). The 5-year EFS was 78.3% for Regimen A, 78.0% for Regimen B, 70.4% for Regimen C, and 48.0% for Regimen D (p = 0.304). The OS marginally improved after 2007 compared with before 2006 (95.3% vs. 85.2%, p = 0.066), due to the improvement of cord blood transplantation (CBT) outcomes after 2007 compared with before 2006 (96.6% vs. 68.4%, p = 0.005). On magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, a reduced Loes score after SCT was only observed in one of the 15 bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients, but in 5 of the 15 CBT patients (p = 0.173). Conclusions: Our study revealed that a reduced conditioning regimen with fludarabine/melphalan/low-dose TBI provides better outcomes, and the results of CBT significantly improved after 2007.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14125
JournalPediatric Transplantation
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Transplantation


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