The spectrum of the supernova relic neutrino (SRN) background from past stellar collapses including black hole formation (failed supernovae) is calculated. The redshift dependence of the black hole formation rate is considered on the basis of the metallicity evolution of galaxies. Assuming the mass and metallicity ranges of failed supernova progenitors, their contribution to SRNs is quantitatively estimated for the first time. Using this model, the dependences of SRNs on the cosmic star formation rate density (CSFRD), shock revival time, and equation of state (EOS) are investigated. The shock revival time is introduced as a parameter that should depend on the still unknown explosion mechanism of core collapse supernovae. The dependence on EOS is considered for failed supernovae, whose collapse dynamics and neutrino emission are certainly affected. It is found that the low-energy spectrum of SRNs is mainly determined by the CSFRD. These low-energy events will be observed in the Super-Kamiokande experiment with gadolinium-loaded water.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science