The effect of oil on condensed film formation in the adsorbed film of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) at the tetradecane (C14)/water (W) interface was examined by interfacial tension and X-ray reflectivity measurements. The interfacial tension vs temperature curves have break point due to the expanded-condensed phase transition of the adsorbed film. The partial molar entropy of C16TAB at the interface changes discontinuously, whereas the interfacial density changes almost continuously at the phase transition point. The electron density profile normal to the interface manifested that the condensed film is regarded as a two-dimensional (2D) solid rotator phase in which C16TAB and C14 molecules are densely packed with perpendicular orientation. Combining the interfacial tension and X-ray reflectivity data, the mixing ratio of C16TAB to C14 in the solid film was determined to be 2:3 and thus the film is enriched in oil molecules than surfactant ones. Furthermore, the partial molar entropy change of C14 associated with solid film formation was found to be largely negative and very close to that of surface freezing of liquid alkane, manifesting that C14 molecules are well ordered to form a 2D solid film by mixing with C16TAB molecules at the interface. The solid film formation of the present system is driven by effective vdW interactions between adsorbed C16TAB and intercalated C14 molecules. The morphology of the condensed domain observed during phase transition suggested that the contact energy is more predominant than the dipole repulsion at the domain boundary, which promotes coalescence of small domains into large ones during phase transition.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry