Cytokines are important intercellular communication tools for immunity. Many cytokines promote gene transcription and proliferation through the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription) and the Ras/ERK (GDP/GTP-binding rat sarcoma protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathways, and these signaling pathways are tightly regulated. The SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signaling) family members are representative negative regulators of JAK/STAT-mediated cytokine signaling and regulate the differentiation and function of T cells, thus being involved in immune tolerance. Human genetic analysis has shown that SOCS family members are strongly associated with autoimmune diseases, allergy and tumorigenesis. SOCS family proteins also function as immune-checkpoint molecules that contribute to the unresponsiveness of T cells to cytokines.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy