Socioeconomic disparities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among municipalities in japan, 1999–2019

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Differences in all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates depending on municipal socioeconomic status (SES) in Japan have not been revealed over the last 20 years. This study exposes the difference in 1999 and 2019 using the Vital Statistics. All of the municipalities were grouped into five quintiles based on their SES, and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of each municipal quintile compared with all of Japan was calculated for all-cause mortality and representative cause of deaths. As a result, although SMR for all-cause mortality for women tended to be lower in low SES quintiles in 1999, the reverse phenomenon was observed in 2019. Additionally, although SMR for all-cause of mortality for men was the lowest in the highest SES quintiles already in 1999, the difference in the SMR for all-cause mortality rates between the lowest and highest SES quintiles increased in 2019. The improvement of the SMR in the highest SES quintile and the deterioration in the lowest was also observed in representative types of cancer, heart disease, stroke, pneumonia, liver disease, and renal failure for men and women. Therefore, this study indicates a disparity in mortality depending on municipal SES enlarged in the last 20 years.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9213
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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