Science of 2.5 dimensional materials: paradigm shift of materials science toward future social innovation

Hiroki Ago, Susumu Okada, Yasumitsu Miyata, Kazunari Matsuda, Mikito Koshino, Kosei Ueno, Kosuke Nagashio

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


The past decades of materials science discoveries are the basis of our present society–from the foundation of semiconductor devices to the recent development of internet of things (IoT) technologies. These materials science developments have depended mainly on control of rigid chemical bonds, such as covalent and ionic bonds, in organic molecules and polymers, inorganic crystals and thin films. The recent discovery of graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials offers a novel approach to synthesizing materials by controlling their weak out-of-plane van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Artificial stacks of different types of 2D materials are a novel concept in materials synthesis, with the stacks not limited by rigid chemical bonds nor by lattice constants. This offers plenty of opportunities to explore new physics, chemistry, and engineering. An often-overlooked characteristic of vdW stacks is the well-defined 2D nanospace between the layers, which provides unique physical phenomena and a rich field for synthesis of novel materials. Applying the science of intercalation compounds to 2D materials provides new insights and expectations about the use of the vdW nanospace. We call this nascent field of science ‘2.5 dimensional (2.5D) materials,’ to acknowledge the important extra degree of freedom beyond 2D materials. 2.5D materials not only offer a new field of scientific research, but also contribute to the development of practical applications, and will lead to future social innovation. In this paper, we introduce the new scientific concept of this science of ‘2.5D materials’ and review recent research developments based on this new scientific concept.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-299
Number of pages25
JournalScience and Technology of Advanced Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science


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