Purpose: The frequency of pancreaticoduodenectomy is increasing in oldest old patients owing to population aging. We aimed to clarify the clinical significance of pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients aged ≥ 80 years with multiple underlying diseases. Methods: A total of 649 consecutive patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy from April 2010 to March 2021 in our institute were divided into two groups according to their age: ≥ 80 years (51) and ≤ 79 years (598). We compared mortality and morbidity between the groups. The age-related prognosis was analyzed in 302 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma treatment. Results: There were no significant differences in morbidity (Clavien–Dindo classification grade III or higher; P = 0.1300), mortality (P = 0.0786), or postoperative hospital stay (P = 0.5763) between the groups. Patients aged ≥ 80 years, who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, had shorter overall survival than those aged ≤ 79 years (median survival time, 16.7 months vs. 32.7 months; P = 0.0206). However, the overall survival of patients aged ≥ 80 years who received perioperative chemotherapy was comparable to that of patients aged ≤ 79 years (P = 0.9795). In the multivariate analysis, the absence of perioperative chemotherapy was identified as an independent prognostic factor, while age ≥ 80 years was not. Perioperative chemotherapy was the sole independent prognostic factor in patients aged ≥ 80 years who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: Pancreaticoduodenectomy is safe for patients aged ≥ 80 years. The survival benefits of pancreaticoduodenectomy for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma aged ≥ 80 years might be limited to those who can receive perioperative chemotherapy.
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