Risk factors for late cytomegalovirus infection after completing letermovir prophylaxis

Yasuo Mori, Takuya Harada, Goichi Yoshimoto, Takahiro Shima, Akihiko Numata, Fumiaki Jinnouchi, Takuji Yamauchi, Yoshikane Kikushige, Yuya Kunisaki, Koji Kato, Katsuto Takenaka, Koichi Akashi, Toshihiro Miyamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Prophylactic use of letermovir (LMV) markedly reduces the incidence of early clinically significant cytomegalovirus (csCMV) infection within the first 100 days after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), which improves transplant outcomes. However, some patients eventually develop late-csCMV infection (beyond day 100) after completing LMV prophylaxis. To assess the incidence of late-csCMV infection as well as its risk factors and impacts on transplant outcome, a total of 81 allo-HCT recipients who had not developed early csCMV infection during LMV prophylaxis were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 23 (28.4%) patients developed late-csCMV infection (until day 180) at a median time of 131 days after transplantation and 30 days after LMV discontinuation, respectively. Late-csCMV infection was correlated with apparent delayed immune reconstitution: patients transplanted from HLA-mismatched donors (hazard ratio [HR] = 13.0, p = 0.011) or CMV-IgG-negative donors (HR = 2.39, p = 0.043) had a significantly higher risk. In this study, transplant outcomes did not differ between patients with and without late-csCMV infection. This suggests a need to clarify the efficacy of extended administration of LMV for preventing late-csCMV infection in a larger number of allo-HCT recipients, especially those with “high-risk” donors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)258-265
Number of pages8
JournalInternational journal of hematology
Volume116
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hematology

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