High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDC-ASCT) is an option for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL); however, neither prospective nor retrospective studies support proceeding with ASCT upfront, and the timing of HDC-ASCT remains controversial. We retrospectively analyzed the risk factors for outcomes of 570 patients with PTCL, including PTCL not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), who received ASCT for frontline consolidation (n = 98 and 75, respectively) or alternative therapies after either relapse (n = 112 and 75) or primary induction failure (PIF; n = 127 and 83) between 2000 and 2015. Significant risk factors for overall survival (OS) after upfront ASCT were a ≥ 2 prognostic index for T-cell lymphoma (P < 0.001) and partial response (PR) at ASCT (P = 0.041) in PTCL-NOS patients, and > 60 years of age (P = 0.0028) and PR at ASCT (P = 0.0013) in AITL patients. Performance status of ≥ 2 at ASCT (P < 0.001), receiving ≥ 3 regimens before ASCT (P = 0.018), and PR at ASCT (P = 0.018) in PTCL-NOS patients and > 60 years of age at ASCT (P = 0.0077) in AITL patients were risk factors for OS after ASCT with a chemosensitive PIF status. Strategies that carefully select PTCL patients may allow identification of individuals suitable for ASCT.
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