We recently demonstrated highly efficient antitumor immunity against dermal tumors of B16F10 murine melanoma with the use of dendritic cells (DCs) activated by replication-competent, as well as nontransmissible-type, recombinant Sendai viruses (rSeV), and proposed a new concept, "immunostimulatory virotherapy," for cancer immunotherapy. However, there has been little information on the efficacies of thismethod: 1) inmore clinically relevant situations including metastatic diseases, 2) on other tumor types and other animal species, and 3) on the related molecular/cellular mechanisms. In this study, therefore, we investigated the efficacy of vaccinating DCs activated by fusion gene-deleted nontransmissible rSeV on a rat model of lung metastasis using a highly malignant subline of Dunning R-3327 prostate cancer, AT6.3. rSeV/dF-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-activated bone marrow-derived DCs (rSeV/dF-GFP-DC), consistent with results previously observed in murine DCs. Vaccination of rSeV/dF-GFP-DC was highly effective at preventing lung metastasis after intravenous loading of R-3327 tumor cells, compared with the effects observed with immature DCs or lipopolysaccharide-activated DCs. Interestingly, neither CTL activity nor DC trafficking showed any apparent difference among groups. Notably, rSeV/dF-DCs expressing a dominantnegative mutant of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) (rSeV/dF-RIGIC-DC), an RNA helicase that recognizes the rSeV genome for inducing type I interferons, largely lost the expression of proinflammatory cytokines without any impairment of antitumor activity. These results indicate the essential role of RIG-I-independent signaling on antimetastatic effect induced by rSeV-activated DCs and may provide important insights to DC-based immunotherapy for advanced malignancies.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research