Rethinking the three r's in animal research: Replacement, reduction, refinement

Research output: Book/ReportBook

2 Citations (Scopus)


This work challenges the current reliance on "The Three R's" or Replacement, Reduction and Refinement which direct most animal research in the behavioral sciences. The author argues that these principles that were developed in the 1950's to guide the use of animals in research studies are outdated. He suggests that the notions of refinement and reduction are often ill-defined and can be useful only in cases where replacement is impossible.

Original languageEnglish
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages134
ISBN (Electronic)9783319893006
ISBN (Print)9783319892993
Publication statusPublished - Apr 10 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Psychology
  • General Medicine
  • General Neuroscience
  • General Arts and Humanities

Cite this