Research methodology

Warren R. Dunn, Stephen Lyman, Robert Marx

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Research aims to reach valid conclusions through scientific enquiry. Valid conclusions can only be reached if bias is minimized or eliminated. Bias can potentially take place in the design, implementation, or analysis of a study. Various study designs reduce bias, and this article reviews some of the more common study designs in orthopaedic sports medicine. We also discuss bias and confounding factors as they relate to these studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)870-873
Number of pages4
JournalArthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2003
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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