Background: Identification of the pathogenesis of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis is important. However, identification of endogenous peritonitis, especially hematogenous infection, is difficult, and there are few reports of endogenous peritonitis via the bloodstream. We report a case of PD-related peritonitis presumed to be caused by hematogenous infection through the oral mucosa. Case presentation: A 65-year-old woman commenced PD at the age of 52. Over the next 13 years, she developed two episodes of streptococcal peritonitis caused by Streptococcus salivarius, a commensal bacteria of the human oral mucosa, and all episodes occurred following stomatitis and gingival bleeding in the early summer. At the age of 65, she again suffered from stomatitis followed by gingival bleeding in early summer, and 2 weeks later, developed a third case of peritonitis caused by Streptococcus salivarius. The streptococcal peritonitis improved immediately following 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment. We surmise that the patient is subject to weakened immunity in the early summer, causing repeated oral problems with gingival bleeding, and subsequently leading to oral streptococcal peritonitis. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that oral streptococcal peritonitis following oral problems such as stomatitis and gingival bleeding results from a hematogenous infection via the oral mucosa.
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