Background: To evaluate the relationship between body composition and the oncological outcome of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), we investigated whether body composition features including the psoas muscle may be predictive factors of ADT. Methods: This study enrolled patients with hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer who were treated with primary ADT from April 1996 to November 2013 at Kyushu University Hospital and who underwent a computed tomography scan before primary ADT for calculating body fat percentage, psoas muscle ratio (psoas muscle, cm3/height, cm), and body mass index. Results: Of the 178 patients enrolled, 60 patients died during follow-up. Median follow-up was 32 months, and progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) were 28 and 80 months, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the psoas muscle ratio was correlated with OS (hazard ratio: 0.448; 95% confidence interval = 0.206–0.922; p = 0.028). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that higher psoas muscle ratio predicts longer OS among patients with nonlocalized prostate cancer treated with primary ADT.
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