Objective: Autoimmune pancreatitis is an autoimmune disorder accompanied by clinicopathological manifestations that have been established as immunoglobulin (IgG)4-related diseases (IgG4-RD). Other IgG4-RD are often involved with autoimmune pancreatitis. They sometimes relapse despite a favorable response to steroid therapy. This study aimed to clarify the patterns and risk factors for extrapancreatic relapse. Methods: We reviewed the data of 115 patients diagnosed with definite autoimmune pancreatitis type 1 and followed up for > 1 year. We analyzed two items: the timing and pattern of extrapancreatic relapse, and risk factors for relapse with three common manifestations: IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (SC), IgG4-related dacryoadenitis and sialadenitis (DS), and IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF). Results: Remission was achieved in all patients, except one. The extrapancreatic relapse rates were 11.0%, 19.7%, and 40% within 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Of 26 patients with extrapancreatic relapse, nine (34.6%) relapsed with a new IgG4-RD. Based on multivariate analysis, the interval between symptom onset and steroid initiation, and the presence of RF at onset were significant risk factors for relapse with SC and RF, respectively. Conclusions: Our results indicate that they may be various extrapancreatic relapse patterns especially in autoimmune pancreatitis with other organ involvement. Patients with a delayed initiation of steroids or RF at onset should be carefully followed up as high-risk groups for SC and RF relapse.
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