There is growing awareness that circadian clocks are closely related to the intracellular redox state across a range of species. As the redox state is determined by the exchange of the redox species, electrochemically controlled extracellular electron transfer (EC-EET), a process in which intracellular electrons are exchanged with extracellular electrodes, is a promising approach for the external regulation of circadian clocks. Herein, we discuss whether the circadian clock can be regulated by EC-EET using the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 as a model system. Invivo monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence revealed that the redox state of the plastoquionone pool could be controlled with EC-EET by simply changing the electrode potential. As a result, the endogenous circadian clock of S. elongatus cells was successfully entrained through periodically modulated EC-EET by emulating the natural light/dark cycle, even under constant illumination conditions. This is the first example of regulating the biological clock by electrochemistry.
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