Purpose of reviewTo provide recent evidence on real-time neurofeedback (NFB) training for auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia patients.Recent findingsNFB is a promising technique that allows patients to gain control over their AVH by modulating their own speech-related/language-related networks including superior temporal gyrus (STG) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) using fMRI, fNIRS and EEG/MEG. A recent limited number of studies showed that while an EEG-based NFB study failed to regulate auditory-evoked potentials and reduce AVH, downregulation of STG hyperactivity and upregulation of ACC activity with fMRI-based NFB appear to alleviate treatment-resistant AVH in schizophrenia patients. A deeper understanding of AVH and development of more effective methodologies are still needed.SummaryDespite recent innovations in antipsychotics, many schizophrenia patients continue to suffer from treatment-resistant AVH and social dysfunctions. Recent studies suggested that real-time NFB shows promise in enabling patients to gain control over AVH by regulating their own speech-related/language-related networks. Although fMRI-NFB is suitable for regulating localized activity, EEG/MEG-NFB are ideal for regulating the ever-changing AVH. Although there are still many challenges including logistic complexity and burden on patients, we hope that such innovative real-time NFB trainings will help patients to alleviate severe symptoms and improve social functioning.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
Psychiatry and Mental health