Cancer research has made remarkable progress and new discoveries are beginning to be made. For example, the discovery of immune checkpoint inhibition mechanisms in cancer cells has led to the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors that have benefited many cancer patients. In this review, we will introduce and describe the latest novel areas of cancer research: exosomes, microbiome, immunotherapy. and organoids. Exosomes research will lead to further understanding of the mechanisms governing cancer proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, as well as the development of cancer detection and therapeutic methods. Microbiome are important in understanding the disease. Immunotherapy is the fourth treatment in cancer therapy. Organoid biology will further develop with a goal of translating the research into personalized therapy. These research areas may result in the creation of new cancer treatments in the future.
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