Racial differences in protein S Tokushima and two protein C variants as genetic risk factors for venous thromboembolism

The SSC Subcommittee on Plasma Coagulation Inhibitors of the ISTH

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9 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Racial differences in genetic risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) are elucidated, with factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A being prevalent among the Caucasian population but rare among non-Caucasians. Objectives: To assess the worldwide distribution of three gene polymorphisms previously identified as genetic risk factors among East Asian subpopulations: protein S (PS) Tokushima (p.Lys196Glu), protein C (PC) p.Arg189Trp, and PC p.Lys193del. Methods: An international collaborative study group of seven centers in five countries—Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hungary, and Brazil—was created, and genotype analyses were performed. A total of 2850 unrelated individuals (1061 patients with VTE and 1789 controls) were included. Results: PS Tokushima was confined to Japanese patients with VTE (allele frequency, 2.35%) and controls (1.12%), with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-3.99). PC p.Arg189Trp carriers were prevalent among Chinese and Malay patients with VTE in Singapore, with allele frequencies of 10.53% and 22.73%, respectively. Carriers of PC p.Lys193del were identified among Japanese and Korean patients with VTE (0.87% and 2.35%, respectively) and controls (0.36% and 1.07%, respectively), with the OR for VTE not being significant, and Chinese patients with VTE in Singapore (5.26%). In contrast, no carriers of PS Tokushima and two PC gene variants were found among patients with VTE or controls from Hungary, Brazil, or Indians in Singapore. Conclusion: The three variants were prevalent among East and Southeast Asians, having some differences in geographic distribution, but were absent among Caucasian subpopulations and Brazilians.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1295-1300
Number of pages6
JournalResearch and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hematology


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