Quantitative coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (CARS) microscopy

James P.R. Day, Katrin F. Domke, Gianluca Rago, Hideaki Kano, Hiro O. Hamaguchi, Erik M. Vartiainen, Mischa Bonn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

114 Citations (Scopus)


The ability to observe samples qualitatively at the microscopic scale has greatly enhanced our understanding of the physical and biological world throughout the 400 year history of microscopic imaging, but there are relatively few techniques that can truly claim the ability to quantify the local concentration and composition of a sample. We review coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) as a quantitative, chemically specific, and label-free microscopy. We discuss the complicating influence of the nonresonant response on the CARS signal and the various experimental and mathematical approaches that can be adopted to extract quantitative information from CARS. We also review the uses to which CARS has been employed as a quantitative microscopy to solve challenges in material and biological science.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7713-7725
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry B
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - Jun 23 2011
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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