Protein engineering using molecular assembly: Functional conversion of cytochrome C via noncovalent interactions

Itaru Hamachi, Akio Fujita, Toyoki Kunitake

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64 Citations (Scopus)


The structure-function relationship of cytochrome c (Cyt-c) interacted with the lipid bilayer membranes was studied by various spectroscopic methods, the reaction-products analysis, and its kinetics. Ultrafiltration binding assay, UV-visible, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies showed that Cyt-c was tightly bound to the lipid bilayer membranes bearing a phosphate head group. The anisotropic and nonnatural complexation with the phosphate-lipid membranes caused a spin-state change of the heme in the active center of Cyt-c. Depending on the membrane fluidity, two classes of the structurally altered Cyt-c were prepared and they showed the greatly enhanced N-demethylase activity. Products analysis by HPLC demonstrated that the lipid membrane bound Cyt-c performs a clean enzymatic reaction similar to native hemoenzymes. Kinetics studies established that there are two different activation manners via the phosphate lipid bilayer membranes: namely, simple enhancement of the affinity for H2O2, or the increased catalytic efficiency (k(cat)) in addition to the enhanced affinity for H2O2. The membrane fluidity again significantly affected the N-demethylation kinetics. A potential of the lipid membrane assembly to functionalize native proteins and enzymes with noncovalent but specific interactions is also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9096-9102
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number39
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 1997
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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