Background: In recent years, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has been widely performed. As a result, patients who need to undergo a complete physical examination for an elevated PSA level have been rapidly increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination has previously been reported to be effective for the detection of prostate cancer. Purpose: To evaluate the detectability of prostate cancer by performing MRI before biopsy, and to evaluate the relationship between detectability with MRI and cancer location, Gleason score (GS), and tumor size. Material and Methods: MRI was performed at 1.5 Tesla in 122 consecutive patients before biopsy. The detectability of prostate cancer, including sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) (b=2000 s/mm), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map, and biopsy, was calculated using whole-mount section histopathology as a gold standard. In addition, the relationship between the detectability on each MRI sequence and factors such as cancer location (peripheral zone vs. transition zone), GS 510, short-axis diameter (≤4 mm, 59 mm, ≥10 mm), and long-axis diameter (≤9 mm, 1019 mm, ≥20 mm) were also evaluated. Results: The sensitivities of TRUS, T2WI, DWI, ADC map, and biopsy were 26.9%, 41.2%, 56.7%, 57.7%, and 75.1%, respectively, and the PPVs of those modalities were 73.0%, 83.0%, 86.4%, 87.2%, and 91.5%, respectively. There was no correlation between the sensitivity of each MRI sequence and cancer location. The sensitivity of each MRI sequence increased as GS and short- and long-axis diameters of cancer lesions increased. Conclusion: MRI before a biopsy has a high detectability of prostate cancer, particularly with tumor size of more than 5 mm in short-axis diameter or 10 mm in long-axis diameter.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging