Periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue, central in the periodontium, plays crucial roles in sustaining tooth in the bone socket. Irreparable damages of this tissue provoke tooth loss, causing a decreased quality of life. The question arises as to how PDL tissue is maintained or how the lost PDL tissue can be regenerated. Stem cells included in PDL tissue (PDLSCs) are widely accepted to have the potential to maintain or regenerate the periodontium, but PDLSCs are very few in number. In recent studies, undifferentiated clonal human PDL cell lines were developed to elucidate the applicable potentials of PDLSCs for the periodontal regenerative medicine based on cell-based tissue engineering. In addition, it has been suggested that transforming growth factor-beta 1 is an eligible factor for the maintenance and regeneration of PDL tissue.