Properties of CuGa2 Formed Between Liquid Ga and Cu Substrates at Room Temperature

Shiqian Liu, Stuart McDonald, Qinfen Gu, Syo Matsumura, Dongdong Qu, Keith Sweatman, Tetsuro Nishimura, Kazuhiro Nogita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Ga and Ga-based alloys have received significant attention due to their potential application in the liquid state for low-temperature bonding in microelectronics. This study investigated the interfacial reactions between liquid Ga and pure Cu substrates at room temperature. The directional thermal expansion behaviour of the resulting CuGa2 was analysed by synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction with supporting observations of single crystal foils in high-voltage transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of CuGa2 were evaluated by nano-indentation. CuGa2 was found to have advantages over other intermetallics that are present in assemblies made with current generation lead-free solders, including Ag3Sn, Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn. In addition to enabling lower process temperatures, solder alloys that form CuGa2 at the interface with Cu offer the possibility of providing more reliable connections in the very small joints that play an increasingly important role as the trend to miniaturisation of electronics continues.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)128-139
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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