Objective: The outcome of the androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) may be affected by metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and dyslipidemia and/or by their treatments. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of these disorders and corresponding medications in Japanese men treated with ADT for prostate cancer. Methods: This study retrospectively included 121 patients with metastatic prostate cancer who were treated with primary ADT at our hospital between 2001 and 2013. All patients received primary ADT with castration and/or an antiandrogen agent (bicalutamide or flutamide). Associations between clinicopathological factors, metabolic disease profiles, medication use, and prognosis (progression-free survival [PFS] and overall survival [OS]) were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median follow-up time was 54.9 months, and the median PFS and OS were 23.9 months and 73.0 months, respectively. High serum glucose levels at baseline (hazard ratio [HR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.12, 1.16–3.76; P = 0.015), and concurrent DM (HR, 95% CI: 2.07, 1.06–3.94; P = 0.034) were significantly associated with poorer OS after adjustment for age, prostate-specific antigen levels at diagnosis, Gleason score, and clinical stage. Treatment with sulfonylurea drugs was significantly associated with a reduced risk of disease progression in men with DM (HR, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.12–0.90; P = 0.028). Conclusions: Impaired glucose tolerance and treatment with sulfonylureas have prognostic significance in prostate cancer. These findings demonstrate the importance of managing DM during ADT and point to a possible favorable effect of sulfonylureas on prostate cancer.
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