Procedural surgical skill assessment in laparoscopic training environments

Munenori Uemura, Pierre Jannin, Makoto Yamashita, Morimasa Tomikawa, Tomohiko Akahoshi, Satoshi Obata, Ryota Souzaki, Satoshi Ieiri, Makoto Hashizume

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This study aimed to identify detailed differences in laparoscopic surgical processes between expert and novice surgeons in a training environment and demonstrate that surgical process modeling can be used for such detailed analysis. Methods: Eleven expert surgeons each of whom had performed (Formula presented.) laparoscopic procedures were compared with 10 young surgeons each of whom had performed (Formula presented.) laparoscopic procedures, and five medical students. Each examinee performed a specific skill assessment task. During tasks, instrument motion was monitored using a video capture system. From the video, the corresponding workflow was recorded by labeling the surgeons’ activities according to a predefined terminology. Activities represented manual work steps performed during the task, described by a combination of a verb (representing the action), a tool, and the involved structure. The results were described as the number of occurrences (times), average duration (seconds), total duration (seconds), minimal duration (seconds), maximal duration (seconds), and occupancy percentage (%). Results: The terminology for describing the processes of this task included 10 actions, six tools, four structures, and three events for each hand. There were 63 combinations of different possible activities; significant differences in 12 activities were observed between the expert and novice groups (young surgeons and medical students). The expert group performed the task with fewer occurrences and shorter duration than did the novice group in the left hand. Conclusions: We identified differences in surgical process between experts and novices in laparoscopic surgical simulation. Our proposed method would be useful for education and training in laparoscopic surgery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)543-552
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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