Preventive and promotive effects of habitual hot spa-bathing on the elderly in Japan

Toyoki Maeda, Koshi Mimori, Sadao Suzuki, Takahiko Horiuchi, Naoki Makino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Although body-warming with hot spa-bathing has been proposed to exert medical therapeutic effects on certain diseases, whether body-warming has preventive and promotive effects remains unknown. To clarify this issue, an epidemiological questionnaire study regarding personal hot spa-bathing habits and disease history was carried out in Japan, where individuals engage in daily warm water bathing. Questionnaires regarding hot spa-bathing habits and disease history were randomly sent to 20,000 residents aged ≥65 years living in Beppu, a city in Japan that has the highest concentration of hot spa sources in the world. The results showed that habitual hot spa-bathing exerts preventive or promotive effects on the occurrence of certain diseases, such as hypertension (preventive) and collagen disease (promotive) in women, and cardiovascular diseases (preventive) and colon cancer survival (promotive) in men. These findings suggest that habitual body warming is an effective and economical method with beneficial preventive and promotive effects on various diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number133
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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